Judges Scientific plc designs, manufactures, and sells scientific instruments. The company operates through two segments, Materials Sciences and Vacuum. It offers engineering teaching and research equipment for universities, colleges, schools, and research centers; and research and development systems for food, beverage, dairy, edible oil, and pharmaceutical industries. The company also provides LED illumination systems for bioscience and clinical microscopy; tensile testing, motion control, and specimen cooling for microscopy applications; automated measurement systems for a range of fibers; edge-welded metal bellows; and fire testing instruments, such as cone calorimeters, large scale calorimeters, NBS smoke chambers and oxygen index test, and related fire testing instruments. In addition, it offers equipment and software used for the computer-controlled testing of soils and rocks; film deposition systems; physical and chemical vapour deposition instruments; open flow cryocoolers for the X-ray diffraction market and crycoolers for cooling applications, such as radio astronomy; test equipment for the characterization of optical fibers; scientific instruments primarily used for electron microscopy sample preparation; scientific equipment used by electrophysiology and imaging researchers; and gas purifiers for metal analysis. Further, the company provides specialized calorimeters used for chemical and battery industries; sample heating and manipulation products for use in vacuum markets for materials research and production; and sheet metalwork services, including components and casting, fabrication, bespoke engineering solutions, as well as laser cutting and CNC machining services. The company operates in the United Kingdom, rest of Europe, North America, China, and internationally. Judges Scientific plc was incorporated in 2002 and is based in London, the United Kingdom.